内容简介：2009年同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语水平全国统一考试英语试卷一ENGLISH QUALIFICATION TESTFOR MASTER-DEGREE APPLICANTSPaper One (90 minutes)Part I Dialogue Communication (10 minutes，10 points)Part II Vocabulary (20 minutes，10 points)Part II…
Paper One 试卷一
Part I Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 for each)
Section A Dialogue Completion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
1．A: It’s not like George to be late for an appointment.
B: ________ He’s always punctual.
A．No way. B．Anyway he’s late.
C．You’re right. D．I don’t think so.
2．A: Helen. You look great! You’re much slimmer than last time I saw you.
B: ________ Actually I’ve been on a diet and I’ve been doing a keep-fit class too.
A．Well, yes. B．No, thanks.
C．You’re flattering me. D．Are you kidding?
3．A: I’m so sorry. I shouldn’t have thrown your violin away. Why didn’t you tell me it was a birthday present from your Dad?
B: ________ What’s done is done.
A．No problem. B．Don’t worry.
C．That’s fine. D．Forget it.
4．A: It’s really hard to maintain contact when people move around so much.
A．That’s right. I’ve been out of touch with my friends.
B．You’re unlucky to have lost contact with your friends.
C．Is it? People just drift apart indeed!
D．I ask them to keep me informed about what they are doing.
5．A: Hi, John, how are you? I heard you were sick.
B: They must have confused me with somebody else. ________
A．I was sick last week. B．I couldn’t agree with you more.
C．So you’re right. D．I’ve never felt better.
Section B Dialogue Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between a man and a woman. At the end of each conversation there is a question followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to the question from the 4 choices by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
6．Woman: Where do you plan to go for dinner?
Man: I was thinking of going to Joe’s. It’s a stone’s throw away. Besides, the environment is good.
Question: What can we learn about Joe’s?
A．It’s not expensive. B．It’s not far from here.
C．It’s an interesting place. D．It’s known for its specialty.
7． Man: That was an absolutely delicious meal. Your cooking is always superb but this time you’ve excelled yourself.
Woman: I’m glad you enjoyed it. It’s a recipe I haven’t tried before.
Question: What does the man think of the woman’s cooking?
A．It’s as good as always.
B．It’s good enough for something new.
C．It’s better than usual.
D．It’s good, but not as good as before.
8． Man: Do you think that Bob is serious about Sally?
Woman: Well, I know this. I’ve never seen him go out so often with the same girl.
Question: What conclusion can we draw from the woman’s statement?
A．Bob never goes steady with a girl.
B．Bob is serious about Sally.
C．Bob will soon change his girlfriend.
D．Bob is not serious about Sally.
9． Man: Everybody’s helping out with the dinner. Would you make the salad?
Woman: Anything but that.
Question: What does the woman mean?
A．She doesn’t want any salad.
B．She will make the salad.
C．She’d rather do some other jobs.
D．She wants some salad.
10． Man: You know what? You should invest the money yourself.
Woman: That had crossed my mind.
Question: What does the woman mean?
A．The idea had bothered her. B．She had invested the money.
C．She wouldn’t give it a try. D．The idea had occurred to her.
Part II Vocabulary (20 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 for each)
Directions: In this section there are 10 sentences, each with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the 4 choices marked A, B, C and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
11．The applications of genetic engineering are abundant and choosing one appropriate for this case can be rather difficult.
A．plentiful B．sufficient C．adequate D．countable
12．The newly elected president has pledged $13 million to the automobile industry for its survival.
A．prepared B．promised C．disposed D．delivered
13．The Americans recognize that the UN can be the channel for greater diplomatic activity.
A．medium B．place C．resort D．tunnel
14．The growth of part-time and flexible working pattern allows more women to take advantage of job opportunities.
A．catch up with B．make use of
C．cast light on D．get rid of
15．Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.
A．impressed B．amused C．puzzled D．attracted
16．Senator James Meeks has called off a boycott of Chicago Public Schools, organized to protest Illinois’ education funding system.
A．reclaimed B．proposed C．canceled D．indulged
17．The new book focuses on the concept that to achieve and maintain total health, people need physical, social and emotional well-being.
A．attain B．gain C．acquire D．gather
18．The 16 percent fare increase would bring Chicago fares in line with those of other big cities.
A．in agreement with B．in cooperation with
C．in connection with D．in association with
19．It is true that London is often sunless, damp and raw, though the occasional sunny days seem all the more attractive by contrast.
A．mild B．chilly C．cloudy D．moist
20．Like flowers that have been waiting all winter to blossom, tourists are eager to burst forth with their cameras.
A．survive B．breeze C．bloom D．revive
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
21．A large ________ of the sunlight never reaches the earth while infra-red heat given off by the earth is allowed to escape freely.
A．ratio B．proportion C．rate D．fraction 英语试卷一A 第 5 页 共 17 页
22．It is amusing that she ________ her father’s bad temper as well as her mother’s good looks.
A．inherited B．retained C．preserved D．maintained
23．________ the few who have failed in their examination, all the other students in the hall are in very high spirits.
A．In spite that B．But for
C．Apart from D．For the sake of
24．The decline in moral standards, which has long concerned social analysts, has at last ________ the attention of average Americans.
A．clarified B．cultivated C．characterized D．captured
25．Our neighbor Uncle Johnson is a stubborn man. Needless to say, we tried ________ to make him change his mind.
A．in short B．in secret C．in vain D．in danger
26．The western media was astonished to see that China’s GDP ________ by almost 40% just in two years’ time.
A．flourished B．floated C．soared D．roared
27．Unemployment seems to be the ________ social problem in this area and may undermine social stability.
A．prevalent B．primitive C．previous D．premature
28．Many people, when ill, see their doctors and ask them to ________ something that will make them feel better.
A．describe B．prescribe C．revise D．devise
29．Facing growing costs and shrinking tax ________, the government is now threatening to cut funding for environmental protection programs.
A．budget B．collection C．profit D．revenue
30．Research shows heavy coffee drinking is ________ a small increase in blood pressure, but not enough to increase the risk for high blood pressure.
A．compared with B．associated with
C．attributed to D．referred to
Part III Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 30 points, 1 for each)
Directions: There are 5 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by 6 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
The other day my son asked me if he could ride up to his elementary school on his bike and meet his friend. He wanted the both of them to ride back to our house so they could play video games and jump on the trampoline (蹦床). I have to admit, part of me wanted to say no. We can go pick him up or his parents can bring him over here, I thought. But my son is eleven years old now. And after all, I do let him ride his bike to school. But I also drive my daughter to school and I can see him on the way, making sure he is getting there safely.
My husband thinks I am too overprotective. I don’t dare to let my children walk anywhere without one of us going along. As you pull out of our neighborhood, there is a shopping center across the street. My son always asks if he can ride his bike or walk over to the drugstore by himself. But crossing that street is just too dangerous. The cars fly around the corner like they’re driving in a car race. What if he gets hit? What if some teenage bullies are hanging out in the parking lot?
I want so much to give my children the freedom that I enjoyed having when I was growing up but I hesitate to do so because there are dangers around every corner. Too many kidnaps, too many sex offenders. I went online and discovered there are 41 sex offenders in my area alone.
I honestly don’t think my mom worried about such things when her children were young.
Growing up in the 1970s was indeed a different time. I never wore a helmet（头盔）when I rode a bike. We were all over the neighborhood, on our bikes and on foot, coming home for dinner and then back out again until dark. We rode in the back of the truck, didn’t wear seatbelts. I walked to and from school every day….
31．What did the author feel reluctant to let her son do?
A．Meet his friend. B．Play video games.
C．Jump on the trampoline. D．Ride his bike on streets.
32．What does the author mean when she says “But my son is eleven years old now”?
A．He is old enough to be given some freedom now.
B．He is a bit too young to go out alone.
C．He has reached the legal age for riding a bike.
D．He can’t protect himself from road hazards.
33．Given her husband’s attitude towards bringing up kids, he would most probably ________.
A．drive his son to school to ensure safety
B．follow his son all the way to school and back
C．give his son more freedom in deciding what to do
D．ask the other boy’s parents to bring him over here
34．Which of the following is NOT considered by the author as a potential threat to kids?
A．Teenage bullies. B．The drugstore.
C．Child abusers. D．Cars racing by.
35．What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A．The social security back in the 1970s was no better than it is today.
B．Today’s children enjoy more freedom than those in the 1970s.
C．Children today are more obedient to their parents.
D．Children in the 1970s enjoyed more freedom than those today.
36．What is the author’s main purpose in writing this passage?
A．To compare today’s social environment with that of the 1970s.
B．To show her concern over the increasing crime rate in her neighborhood.
C．To describe her hesitation as to how much freedom she should give her son.
D．To express her worries about both safety and security in her area.
About a century ago more people would not have appreciated the study of a foreign language as they do today. Gone are those days when patriotism towards one’s own language was a major obstacle to learning foreign languages, a time when most nations were trying to throw their alien rulers out of their countries in their freedom struggles.
Gone are those days when people were proud of their mother or father tongues and considered that their native languages alone will suffice the need to survive. Language skills today have become as important as other business and career skills like IT, vocational or professional skills. Thus learning a foreign language today has become essential for an individual whether it is for careers, growing a business, or even to make an impression.
All that one needs to possess these days is a drive to learn a foreign language and there are all kinds of institutes and courses that teach various foreign languages like French, German, Spanish, and Japanese. Today’s world economy has bridged the barriers of race, sex, color and religion and the world has become a smaller place. Today’s businesses also demand language skills to expand and grow in other countries. Tens and hundreds of businesses world wide are expanding and growing their businesses by promoting them in countries other than their countries of origin. The tremendous growth of the Internet has further increased the demand for language skills. In Canada an official rule also says that all commercial establishments must have their websites created both in English and French, the official languages of the country.
Language can also ease race and border barriers. You are more welcome in an alien nation if you know the language of the people there and can converse in their tongue. People in these countries immediately respect you and think you care about their culture as much as they do because in any culture language is the key identity.
37．One of the reasons for not studying a foreign language in the past is ________.
A．it was too difficult B．it was not allowed
C．it was seen as disloyalty D．it was taught by foreign rulers
38．According to the article, which of the following is true?
A．People’s language skills are better than in the past.
B．Foreign language skills are of vital importance.
C．It’s easier nowadays to learn a foreign language.
D．People today are not proud of their native language.
39．What does “to make an impression” (Paragraph 1) probably mean?
A．To remember things. B．To express ideas.
C．To show respect. D．To be liked by others.
40．The world has become smaller because of ________.
A．business expansion B．the growth of the Internet
C．a globalized economy D．the learning of foreign languages
41．According to the article, the growth of the Internet requires ________.
A．more foreign language skills
B．more bilingual websites
C．better command of English
D．more commercial establishments
42．People in a foreign country will treat you with more respect if you speak their language because ________.
A．they think you love their country
B．they think you understand their culture
C．it’s easier for them to communicate with you
D．they believe you are a good language learner
You may have wondered why the supermarkets are all the same. It is not because the companies that operate them lack imagination. It is because they all aim at persuading people to buy things.
In the supermarket, it takes a while for the mind to get into a shopping mode. This is why the area immediately inside the entrance is known as the “decompression zone”. People need to slow down and look around, even if they are regulars. In sales terms this area is a bit of a loss, so it tends to be used more for promotion.
Immediately inside the first thing shoppers may come to is the fresh fruit and vegetables section. For shoppers, this makes no sense. Fruit and vegetables can be easily damaged, so they should be bought at the end, not the beginning, of a shopping trip. But what is at work here? It turns out that selecting good fresh food is a way to start shopping, and it makes people feel less guilty about reaching for the unhealthy stuff later on.
Shoppers already know that everyday items, like milk, are invariably placed towards the back of a store to provide more opportunities to tempt customers. But supermarkets know shoppers know this, so they use other tricks, like placing popular items halfway along a section so that people have to walk all along the aisle looking for them. The idea is to boost “dwell time”: the length of time people spend in a store. 英语试卷一A 第 10 页 共 17 页
Traditionally retailers measure “footfall”, as the number of people entering a store is known, but those numbers say nothing about where people go and how long they spend there. But nowadays, a piece of technology can fill the gap: the mobile phone. Path Intelligence, a British company tracked people’s phones at Gunwharf Quays, a large retail centre in Portsmouth—not by monitoring calls, but by plotting the positions of handsets as they transmit automatically to cellular networks. It found that when dwell time rose 1% sales rose 1.3%.
Such techniques are increasingly popular because of a deepening understanding about how shoppers make choices. People tell market researchers that they make rational decisions about what to buy, considering things like price, selection or convenience. But subconscious forces, involving emotion and memories, are clearly also at work.
43．In Paragraph 2, “decompression zone” is the area meant to ________.
A．offer shoppers a place to have a rest
B．prepare shoppers for the mood of buying
C．encourage shoppers to try new products
D．provide shoppers with discount information
44．Putting fruit-and-vegetable section near the entrance takes advantage of shoppers’ ________.
A．common sense B．shopping habits
C．concerns with time D．shopping psychology
45．Path Intelligence uses a technology to ________.
A．count how many people enter a store
B．measure how long people stay at a store
C．find out what people buy in a store
D．monitor what people say and do in a store
46．What happened at Gunwharf Quays showed that sales ________.
A．was in direct proportion to dwell time
B．was reversely linked to dwell time
C．was affected more by footfall than by dwell time
D．was affected more by dwell time than by footfall
47．The author argues that shoppers ________.
A．exert more influence on stores than they imagine
B．are more likely to make rational choices than they know
C．tend to make more emotional decisions than they think
D．have more control over what they buy than they assume
48．The best title for the passage is ________.
A．New Technology Boosts Stores’ Sales
B．How Shoppers Make Choices in Stores
C．Rational and Irrational Ways of Shopping
D．The Science behind Stores’ Arrangements
A very important world problem is the increasing number of people who actually inhabit this planet. The limited amount of land and land resources will soon be unable to support the huge population if it continues to grow at its present rate.
So why is this huge increase in population taking place? It is really due to the spread of the knowledge and practice of what is becoming known as “Death Control”. You have no doubt heard of the term “Birth Control”. “Death Control” is something rather different. It recognizes the work of the doctors and scientists who now keep alive people who, not very long ago, would have died of a variety of then incurable diseases. Through a wide variety of technological innovations that include farming methods and the control of deadly diseases, we have found ways to reduce the rate at which we die. However, this success is the very cause of the greatest threat to mankind.
If we examine the amount of land available for this ever-increasing population, we begin to see the problem. If everyone on the planet had an equal share of land, we would each have about 50,000 square metres. This figure seems to be quite encouraging until we examine the amount of usable land we actually have. More than three-fifths of the world’s land cannot produce food.
Obviously, with so little land to support us, we should be taking great care not to reduce it further. But we are not! Instead, we are consuming its “capital”—its nonrenewable fossil fuels and other mineral deposits that took millions of years to form but which are now being destroyed in decades. We are also doing the same with other vital resources not usually thought of as being nonrenewable such as fertile soils, groundwater and the millions of other species that share the earth with us.
It is a very common belief that the problems of the population explosion are caused mainly by poor people living in poor countries who do not know enough to limit their reproduction. This is not true. The actual number of people in an area is not as important as the effect they have on nature. Developing countries do have an effect on their environment, but it is the populations of richer countries that have a far greater impact on the earth as a whole.
49．According to the article, what contributes to the population increase?
A．Birth explosion. B．Birth Control.
C．Death Control. D．Technological innovations.
50．The word “incurable” in Paragraph 2 means ________.
51．There isn’t enough land to support human beings because ________.
A．there are more seas than land in the world
B．most of the world’s land is unusable
C．the world’s land has already been taken up
D．the world’s land is not distributed equally
52．In Paragraph 4 the writer implies that fertile soils are ________.
53．What does “to limit their reproduction” in the last paragraph mean?
A．To control death. B．To produce less goods.
C．To increase production. D．To practice birth control.
54．What do you think the writer is really concerned about?
A．Long life spans.
C．Overuse of resources.
D．The success of “Death Control”.
All day long, you are affected by large forces. Genes influence your intelligence and willingness to take risks. Social dynamics unconsciously shape your choices. Instantaneous perceptions set off neutral reactions in your head without you even being aware of them.
Over the past few years, scientists have made a series of exciting discoveries about how these deep patterns influence daily life. Nobody has done more to bring these discoveries to public attention than Malcolm Gladwell.
Gladwell’s new book Outliers seems at first glance to be a description of exceptionally talented individuals. But in fact, it’s another book about deep patterns. Exceptionally successful people are not lone pioneers who created their own success, he argues. They are the lucky beneficiaries of social arrangements.
Gladwell’s noncontroversial claim is that some people have more opportunities than others. Bill Gates was lucky to go to a great private school with its own computer at the dawn of the information revolution.
Gladwell’s book is being received by reviewers as a call to action for the Obama Age. It could lead policy makers to finally reject policies built on the assumption that people are coldly rational profit-maximizing individuals. It could cause them to focus more on policies that foster relationships, social bonds and cultures of achievement.
Yet, I can’t help but feel that Gladwell and others who share his emphasis are preoccupied with the coolness of the discoveries. They’ve lost sight of the point at which the influence of social forces ends and the influence of the self-initiating individual begins.
Most successful people begin with two beliefs: the future can be better than the present, and I have the power to make it so. They were often showered by good fortunes, but relied at crucial moments upon achievements of individual will. These people also have an extraordinary ability to consciously focus their attention. Control of attention is the ultimate individual power. People who can do that are not prisoners of the stimuli around them. They can choose from the patterns in the world and lengthen their time horizons.
Gladwell’s social determinism overlooks the importance of individual character and individual creativity. And it doesn’t fully explain the genuine greatness of humanity’s talents. As the classical philosophers understood, examples of individual greatness inspire achievement more reliably than any other form of education.
55．In Paragraph 2, “these deep patterns” refers to all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A．genes B．social dynamics
C．instantaneous perceptions D．neutral reactions
56．According to the author, Gladwell’s new book Outliers is mainly ________.
A．a descriptive study of exceptionally talented individuals
B．about the importance of social arrangements to personal success
C．to discuss why some people have more opportunities than others
D．to explain why Bill Gates is much luckier than others
57．It can be seen from Paragraph 5 that Gladwell’s book ________.
A．has become quite influential
B．is beginning to influence Obama’s policies
C．has received severe criticisms
D．assumes that people just pursue maximum profits
58．According to the author, the most fundamental individual power is ________.
A．individual will B．control of attention
C．a good character D．exceptional creativity
59．The author believes that individual greatness is more closely related to ________.
A．social forces and genes
B．good luck and education
C．individual character and creativity
D．individual genes and good education
60．This passage is probably a ________.
A．book review B．book report
C．political essay D．news report
Part IV Cloze (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
Nuclear energy is an efficient and convenient substitute for conventional forms of energy which were found in special geographical locations. Large amounts of 61 and effort are required to 62 these locations. Once the sites are found, men and equipment must be brought to tap and use these sources of energy. However, a large proportion of such sites are found only in far and 63 places. This increases the difficulties of 64 these forms of energy. With nuclear energy, such difficulties are not present. Nuclear reactors can easily be built anywhere, and man does not have to compete with the 65 of nature in order to obtain the energy. For equal amounts of energy, nuclear energy is much more convenient and inexpensive to obtain than conventional sources of energy. With nuclear energy, the am
uclear energy is based on the fission (裂变) of atoms, pollution is kept to a very low level. The energy produced in the reactors is converted into heat and electricity, and these have 67 or no pollution at all. Conventional forms of fuel, 68 , produce large amounts of pollution. Production of nucle
unts of energy can be obtained from it. The world’s reserves of oil, coal and natural
gas are running 71 at a tremendous rate and current estimates predict that 72 of the 21st century, most of these conventional fuels will be used up. Nuclear energy is the exception 73 this gloomy prediction. Through splitting and fusing atoms, large amounts of energy can be produced, and 74 this process can go on and on until all our energy needs are satisfied. The 75 of nuclear energy as a boundless source of energy is indeed great, and we must harness it whenever possible as conventional fuels will not be around much longer.
61.A.incentive B. capital C. interest D. currency
62．A．point B．recognize C．identify D．label
63．A．isolated B．single C．sole D．solitary
64．A．detecting B．selecting C．harnessing D．concentr
65．A．potentials B．powers C．strengths D．forces
66．A．If B．While C．Though D．Since
67．A．little B．much C．more D．less
68．A．as a result B．in general C．on the other hand D．in effect
69. A. process B. rule C. principle D. function
70．A．incomplete B．definite C．infinite D．defined
71．A．out B．up C．away D．down
72．A．at the end B．by the end C．in the end D．to the en
73．A．in B．for C．of D．to
74．A．substantially B．additionally C．effectively D．theor
75．A．use B．potential C．popularity D．transformation
ENGLISH QUALIFICATION TEST
Paper Two(60 minutes)
Part I Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
Third-hand smoke is tobacco smoke contamination that lingers in carpets, clothes and other materials hours or even days after a cigarette is put out. According to a study, a large number of people, particularly smokers, have no idea that third-hand smoke is a health hazard for people. Of the 1,500 smokers and nonsmokers surveyed, the vast majority agreed that second-hand smoke is dangerous. But when asked whether they agreed with the statement, “Breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm your health,” only 65% of nonsmokers and 43% of smokers answered “yes.”
Directions: Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
Part II Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions: In this part, you are to write within 30 minutes a composition of no less than 150 words under the title of “My Opinion About Blog”. Your composition should be based on the clues given below. Please remember to write it clearly on the COMPOSITION SHEET.
Blog is an on-line diary that one keeps on his frequently updated personal web page. Blog often reflects the personality and experiences of the author.
1. Introductory remarks.
2. My opinion about blog:
For or against, and reasons, OR
What I think blog can do.
Key to the Test of 2009（A卷）
Part I Dialogue Communication (10 points)
1. C 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. D
6. B 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. D
Part II Vocabulary (10 points)
11. A 12. B 13. A 14. B 15. D 16. C 17. B 18. A 19. D 20. C
21. B 22. A 23. C 24. D 25. C 26. C 27. A 28. B 29. D 30. B
Part III Reading Comprehension (30 points)
31. D 32. A 33. C 34. B 35. D 36. C 37. C 38. B 39. D 40. C
41. A 42. B 43. B 44. D 45. B 46. A 47. C 48. D 49. C 50. C
51. B 52. D 53. D 54. C 55. D 56. B 57. A 58. B 59. C 60. A
Part IV Cloze (15 points)
61. B 62. C 63. A 64. C 65. D
66. D 67. A 68. C 69. A 70. C
71. A 72. B 73. D 74. D 75. B
Key to the Test of 2009
Part I Translation (20 points)
If ever I become a mother, I will bring my children camping. I will let them enjoy the fun of cooking food over a campfire. I will tell them that it is not dirty sleeping on the grass. I will let them know that in addition to being the source of fairy tales, the stars in the sky are of practical use. For example, they may give directions to travelers that get lost. Such outdoor activities are also educational.
Part II Writing (15 points)
The version is open.